Blog 10 – IA / CMS

1. Describe the five stages of integrating information architecture into the web development process.

  • Research
    • The research phase begins with:
    • A review of existing background materials
    • Meetings with the strategy team aimed at gaining a high-level understanding of: The business context, The existing information architecture, The content, The intended audiences
    • Explores the information ecology
  • Strategy
    • The research provides a contextual understanding for the foundation of the information architecture strategy
      • Top-Down – the strategy defines the highest two or three levels of the site’s organisation and navigation structures
      • Bottom-Up – Suggests candidate document types and rough metadata schema •
    • Provides a high-level framework for the information architecture, establishing direction and scope
  • Design
    • Design shapes a high-level strategy into an information architecture creating detailed blueprints, wireframes, and metadata schema
    • The outputs from design are given to the graphic designers, programmers, content authors, and production team
    • Design is where information architects do the most work
    • Poor design execution can ruin the best strategy
  • Implementation
    • Implementation is where your designs are put to the test and the site is built, tested, and launched
    • For the information architect, this phase involves: Organising and tagging documents ,Testing and troubleshooting, Developing documentation and training programs to ensure that the information architecture can be maintained effectively over time
  • Administration
    • Administration is the continuous evaluation and improvement of the site’s information architecture
    • Administration involves the daily duties of: Tagging new documents and weeding out old ones , Monitoring site usage and user feedback, Identifying opportunities to improve the site through major or minor redesigns

Reference : Lecture Notes

2. In terms of assessing technology, what is a gap analysis?

  • A gap analysis is a method of assessing the differences in performance between a business’ information systems or software applications to determine whether business requirements are being met and, if not, what steps should be taken to ensure they are met successfully

Reference : Lecture Notes

3. When gathering content for content analysis, describe an approach that would capture representational sample of a site’s content.

-Use a “Noah’s Ark” approach to capture a couple of each type:

• Format – Aim for a broad mix of formats (text, software, video/audio, email, …)

• Document type – Capture a diverse set of document types (marketing brochures, press releases, annual reports, forms, presentations, online calculators, spread sheets, …)

• Source – Reflect the diverse sources of content (obtains samples from all departments)

• Subject – Use a publicly available classification scheme or thesaurus

• Existing architecture – Use the existing structure of the site to gather content

Reference : Lecture Notes
4. Describe the differences between structural metadata, descriptive metadata, and administrative metadata.

  • Structural metadata – Describe the information hierarchy of this object
  • Descriptive metadata – Think of the different way to describe the object
  • Administrative metadata – Describe how the object relates to business context

Reference : Lecture Notes

5. What are competitive and before-and-after benchmarking?

Competitive benchmarking: The process of constantly comparing the practive and performance with that of it’s most successful competitors. This can be dangerous because we are not sure all the time whether all the features are good enough or not.

Before and after benchmarking: Benchmarking is applied to a single site over time to measure improvements based on the product goals and success criteria.

Reference: Section 10.4. Content

6. What are the benefits of competitive benchmarking?

  • Generates a laundry list of information architecture features, bringing lots of new ideas to table
  • Encourages transition from broad generalizations (e.g., “Amazon is a good model”) to specific, actionable definitions (“Amazon’s personalization feature works well for frequent visitors”)
  • Challenges embedded assumptions (e.g., “We should be like Fidelity”) and avoids copying the wrong features for the wrong reasons
  • Establishes current position with respect to competitors and creates a point of reference against which to measure speed of improvementReference: Section 10.4. Content

7. What are the benefits of before-and-after benchmarking?

Advantages of before-and-after benchmarking:

  • Identifies and prioritizes information architecture features in the existing site
  • Encourages transition from broad generalizations (e.g., “Our site’s navigation stinks”) to specific, actionable definitions
  • Creates a point of reference against which you can measure improvementsReference: Section 10.4. Content

8. What is clickstream analysis, and why is it important?

clickstream analysis is the process of collecting, analyzing, and reporting aggregate data about which pages visitors visit in what order – which are the result of the succession of mouse clicks each visitor makes

Why is it important?

Traffic analysis tracks how many pages are served to the user, how long it takes pages to load, how often the user hits the browser’s back or stop button, and how much data is transmitted before a user moves on. E-commerce-based analysis uses clickstream data to determine the effectiveness of the site as a channel-to-market by quantifying the user’s behavior while on the Web site. It is used to keep track of what pages the user lingers on, what the user puts in or takes out of their shopping cart, and what items the user purchases.

Reference: What is clickstream analysis?
9. What sort of information can you learn about users from search log analysis?

  • Track and analyse the queries entered into the search engine
  • Can identify what users are looking for, and the words and phrases they are using
  • Ideal when creating a controlled vocabulary
  • Also useful for prioritising terms for a “Best Bets” strategy

Reference : Lecture Notes

10. What should be the goals for surveying users from an information architecture perspective?

The goals for surveying users is to get information from many users. The information from users could be what they think about contents and tasks and which contents and tasks are valuable and which contents and tasks are not so valuable for them. With gathered information, improvement and higher level of satisfaction can be made.
11. Optional* What is contextual inquiry, and how can it be beneficial to gathering data
about users?
12. Optional* How can focus groups be used to gather information about a site’s information
architecture? What are the pros and cons of using focus groups?
13. Optional* What are the differences between an open-ended and a closed card sort?
14. Optional* Describe the basic process involved with usability engineering. What are
some of the types of tasks you could set?
15. Optional* What is TACT? How is it used to develop an information architecture
16. Optional* What is meant by “metaphor exploration” when developing an information
architecture strategy? Describe the differences between organisational metaphors,
functional metaphors, and visual metaphors.
17. Optional* What are the core sections of a strategy report?
18. Optional* What are blueprints and wireframe diagrams used for?
19. Optional* What is the purpose of the content management section of the strategy report?
20. Optional* Why is it important to follow up a project plan with a series of presentations?
21. Optional* Construct blueprint diagrams illustrating the structure by which a user will
interact with your web site’s components. (Refer to Morville Chapter 12 for how to create

The blueprints must:

i. Include arrows to indicate flow between various sections/pages of the web

ii. Contain textual descriptions within the diagram to further explain sections/pages of the web site;

iii. Contain a legend to describe the notation used in your blueprints;

iv. Provide additional modularised blueprints that go into further detail for complex sections of your web site;

v. Provide accompanying textual descriptions of the diagrams showing how the user will interact with your web site;

vi. Describe what forms of navigation are being used (e.g., contextual, index terms, site maps, bread crumbs, etc.);

vii. Describe what search strategies are being employed;

and viii. Describe the site’s organisation and what type of browsing the web site supports (e.g., hierarchical, polyhierarchical, etc.).

22. Optional* Create a series of medium fidelity wireframes for the main pages of the web site. (Refer to Morville Chapter 12 for how to create wireframes.)

The wireframes should include:

a) At least three clearly labelled pages depicting the web site’s home page, a content page, and a navigation (or search) page;

b) Labelled placeholders for images; and

c) Highlight and explain the navigation systems.

23. Optional* Design a metadata matrix that presents the vocabulary terms and relationships. You need only present accepted and variant terms in an accompanying controlled vocabulary database (there is no need to develop extensive synonym rings or explode the vocabulary to include broader and narrower terms). The course web site provides examples and exemplars from previous students for how to develop a metadata matrix.

Your answer must provide:

a) A metadata matrix showing all labels, content headings, and major search terms;

b) A vocabulary database listing the accepted and variant terms; and

c) A description of how you created your controlled vocabulary (i.e., the sources for discovering and organising the terms). Justify your design choices with references to authoritative sources (minimum 500 words).

24. Undertake the following tasks for your Drupal web site assignment:

a. Add content to your Drupal web site using pages and articles (be sure to use alternate text for your images); and

b. Implement menus.

25. Undertake the following tasks for your Drupal web site assignment:

a. Explore different themes and modules to expand your web site’s functionality and visual appeal;

and b. Create a Facebook page or Twitter account to promote you web site. Place a link to your promotional page on your blog. Have other students/users test your Drupal web site to ensure everything works properly

Blog 9 – IA

1. What is the purpose of metadata? What are the categories of metadata?

Metadata is definitional data that may include descriptive information about the context, quality, and condition, or characteristics of the data


  • Structural metadata: Describes the information of the document
  • Descriptive metadata: Enables the type of document to be identified
  • Identified the relationship of the document to the business context

Reference: LectureNotes

2. What is a controlled vocabulary? How is a controlled vocabulary beneficial to a web siteand/or organisation?

• A Controlled Vocabulary is a list of equivalent terms in the form of a synonym ring, or a list of preferred terms in the form of an authority file

  • A CV is in reality a “concept map” of what is on your site
  • Helps with category analysis or keeping your categories distinct
  • Helps establish a site’s navigation
  • Is the basis for personalisation features
  • Help with preparation for CMS or knowledge management projects
  • Gets the organisation using the same language as the users

Reference: LectureNotes

3. List the four main types of controlled vocabularies.

  • Synonym Rings
  • Authority Files
  • Classification Schemes / Taxonomy
  • Thesauir

4. What is the purpose of a synonym ring? Give examples of terms that would be
considered equivalent under a synonym ring. What might happened during a search if you didn’t use a synonym ring? (Give an example.)

A synonym ring connects a set of words that are defined as equivalent for the purposes of retrieval


For example, when a user do a search without a synonym ring, lets say that user searched for “filing cabinet” in a website without synonym rings, he/she would have results for only filing cabinet. However, with synonym ring, other related office equipment will be shown as well.
5. What is the purpose of an authority file? Describe how an authority file can educate usersduring search.

An authority file is a list of preferred terms or acceptable values (does not include variants or synonyms). Authority files have traditionally been used largely by libraries and government agencies to define the proper names for a set of entities within a limited domain
6. Create an authority file for abbreviations of the Australian states and territories
(Queensland, New South Wales, South Australia, Australian Capital Territory, Victoria,South Australia, Western Australia, Northern Territory).

Queensland – QLD

New South Wales – NSW

South Australia -SA

Australian Capital Territory – ACT

Victoria – VIC

South Australia – SA

Western Australia – WA

Northern Territory – NT
7. Describe the purpose of a classification scheme. How does a web site benefit from aclassification scheme?

• Classification schemes (or taxonomy) mean a hierarchical arrangement of preferred terms ,Organisation of objects according to some principles

  • Linnean taxonomy (for living organisms)
  • Web directories (e.g., Yahoo or ODP)
  • Corporate directories
  • Organisation charts

Reference: LectureNotes
8. Create a classification scheme for several major dog breeds based on whether the dog is toy, small, medium, large, or giant.

Toy :  Yorkshire Terrier, Poodle

Small: Beagle, Dachshund

Medium: Labrador Retriever, Bulldog, Boxer

Large: German Shepherd Dog, Golden Retriever, Rottweiler

Giant: Kuvasz, Landseer, St. Bernard

9. Optional* What is the Library of Congress Classification Scheme (LCC)?
10. Optional* What is the Machine Readable Catalogue (MARC) standards?
11. What topics would the following codes retrieve under Dewey Decimal Classification:
a. 025.524

  • Information search & retrieval

b. 787.87092

  • Ensembles, voices, instruments

c. 641.623

  • Food & drink

d. 634.772

  • Orchards & their fruits

e. 522.29

  • Techniques, equipment, materials

12. Optional* Describe the Dublin Core Metadata Initiative.
13. Optional* Describe the purpose of the AGLS Metadata Standard.
14. Optional* What is meant by the term “bubble-up folksonomy”?
15. Optional* What are the differences between taxonomy and folksonomy?
16. What is the purpose of thesauri? How is a thesaurus beneficial to searching on a website?

• A thesaurus is a CV in which equivalence, hierarchical, and associative relationships are identified for the purposes of improved retrieval

  • The preferred term is the centre of its own network
  • Equivalence relationship is focused on synonym management
  • Hierarchical relationship enables the classification of preferred terms into categories and subcategories
  • Associative relationship provides for meaningful connections that aren’t handled by the hierarchical or equivalence relationships

Reference: LectureNotes

17. Optional* Define the following terms and describe how they are used by thesauri:
a. Equivalence relationship
b. Hierarchical relationship
c. Equivalence relationship
18. Optional* In terms of thesauri, provide definitions for the following:
a. Preferred Term
b. Variant Term
c. Broader Term
d. Narrower Term

Blog 8 – CMS

1. Describe what Google Analytics is, the functionality it provides, and how it might be
useful when designing/maintaining a web site.

Google Analytics is a freemium web analytics service offered by Google that tracks and reports website traffic. Google launched the service in November 2005 after acquiring Urchin. Google Analytics is now the most widely used web analytics service on the Internet. Google Analytics is offered also in two additional versions: a subscription based Google Analytics Premium targeted at enterprise users and Google Analytics for Mobile Apps, an SDK that allows gathering usage data fromiOS and Android Apps.
2. What is the purpose of the “Admin” module in Drupal? Describe the various features
offered by Drupal’s Admin module.

The admin module provides UI improvements to the standard Drupal admin interface.


  • Sustainability – avoid excessive overrides of code, markup, and interface strings to ensure the module keeps the workload overhead on the maintainers and community to a minimum.
  • Pluggable/extensible architecture – ensure that admin serves as a starting point for other modules in contrib to implement admin interfaces.
  • Expose Drupal’s strengths and downplay its weaknesses where possible. An honest approach to the underlying framework and architecture of Drupal will be less confusing to the user down the road.

Reference :
3. Undertake the following tasks for your Drupal web site assignment:
a. Establish a Google Analytics account and configure it to work with your Drupal
web site; and
b. Add the Admin module to your Drupal web site.

Blog 7 – IA

1. What are some of the reasons that might warrant the need to use a search system on a

  • When there are lots of information to browse
  • helps fragmented sites
  • used as a learning tool
  • users expect it to be there
  • can tame dynamism

Reference: lecture notes
2. Why is an Information Architect interested in search systems?

  • Search systems benefit users by leveraging metadata.
  • How the search interface can be improved.
  • How it can be integrated with browsing / navigation

Reference: lecture notes
3. Describe the core components of a search engine.

  • The Webcrawler
    This is the part of the search engine which combs through the pages on the internet and gathers the information for the search engine. Variable features which can affect your search results (Included pages, Excluded pages, Documents types, Frequency of crawling)
  • The Database
    The search engine’s database is what you are actually searching. All of the information that a web crawler retrieves is stored in a database. Every time you use a search engine, it is this database you are searching, not the live internet. Variable features which can affect your search results (Size of the database, Freshness of the database)
  • The Search algorithm
    Each search engine interprets the terms you enter into the search box in different ways. Variable features which can affect your search results (Operators, Phrase Searching, Truncation)
  • ) The Ranking algorithm
    How a search engine ranks the results of your search is possibly the most important component of a search engine. Most searches will retrieve thousands of results. Since you probably will only look through the first 1-2 pages of results, you need the most relevant results to appear first. Variable features which can affect your search results (Location and Frequency, Link Analysis, Clickthrough measurement)

4. What is a search zone? What are the approaches for creating search zones?

subset of a web site that have been indexed separately from the rest of the site’s content. They eliminate content irrelevant to the user, resulting in fewer search results.


  • Segregating documents
  • Logically tagging them
  • Content type, audience, role, subject/topic, geography, chronology, author,
    department/business unit

Reference: lecture notes
5. Explain the difference between recall and precision in terms of search results.


Reference: lecture notes
6. Consider the following search engines:
a. Search engine A retrieves 600 documents out of a total of 8,200 documents. Out
of the 600 documents retrieved, only 500 are relevant out of a total of 923 relevant
documents. Calculate the recall and precision rates for the query.

Recall : 500/923 x 100 = 54%

Precision : 500/8200 x 100 = 6%
b. Search engine B retrieves 131 documents out of a total of 8,200 documents. Out
of the 131 documents retrieved, all 131 are relevant out of a total of 923 relevant
documents. Calculate the recall and precision rates for the query.

Recall : 131/923 x 100 =14%

Precision : 131/8200 x 100 =1.5%
c. Search engine C retrieves 700 documents out of a total of 8,200 documents. Out
of the 700 documents retrieved, 0 are relevant out of a total of 923 relevant
documents. Calculate the recall and precision rates for the query.

Recall : 0/923 x 100 =0%

Precision : 0/923 x 100 =0%
d. Search engine D retrieves 5,000 documents out of a total of 8,200 documents.
Out of the 5,000 documents retrieved, 923 are relevant out of a total of 923
relevant documents. Calculate the recall and precision rates for the query.

Recall : 923/923 x 100 =100%

Precision : 923/8200 x 100 =11%
7. What is the purpose of a stemming tool? Explain the difference between strong and weak stemming. Provide examples of strong and weak stemming.

The stemming tool is a tool that expands a term to include other terms that share the same root. Strong stemming includes plurals as well as other terms that include the root, where as weak stemming includes plurals only.

Root: user

Strong stemming:
– user (root)
– users
– used
– using
Weak stemming:
– user (root)
– user

Reference: lecture notes
8. What are two main issues to consider when displaying the results of a search?

– Which content components to display
– How to list or group those results

Reference: lecture notes
9. How many documents should you display in a search result?

It is up to the amount of information available and that are displayed for that results.

Reference: Chapter 8 Search Systems – Information Architecture for the World Wide Web
10. Describe some approaches for sorting and ranking search results for display.


  • Alphabetically (by title, by author, by department)
  • Chronologically (by date)

Ranking: Relevance, Popularity, Users’ or experts’ ratings, Pay-for-placement

Reference: lecture notes
11. When sorting search results alphabetically, why is it a good idea to omit articles such as “a” and “the”?

Omitting articles is a good idea as it can be misleading and deter from the desired document as “a” and “the” do not add any meaning to a search.

Reference: lecture notes
12. How does “best bets” ranking operate?

Best bets allows human expertise or search-log analysis to influence ranking using indexing.

Reference: lecture notes

13. What are four key factors to consider when designing a search system interface?

• Level of searching expertise and motivation
• Type of information need
• Type of information being searched
• Amount of information being searched

Reference: lecture notes
14. What are some of the ways search system designers can help a user when no results are returned for a query?

  • Provide alternative search words
  • Provide similar search words
  • Provide a means of revising the search
  • Provide search tips or other advice on how to improve the search
  • Provide a means of browsing
  • Provide a human contact if searching and browsing don’t work

Reference: lecture notes

15. Optional* Describe how Google’s PageRank algorithm operates.
16. Optional* What is SERP?
17. Optional* Describe the main Boolean operators used in search engine queries.
18. Optional* What is meant by the terms Deep and Surface Web? How might documents
end up in the Deep Web?
19. Optional* What are the two primary goals when designing a search engine’s
20. Optional* Describe the search engine indexing process.
21. Optional* What is the purpose of a web crawler?

Blog 6 – CMS

1. What is the purpose of security permissions in a CMS? What are the various permission
options provided in Drupal?

The purpose of security permission in a CMS is to give permission for more than one user to use the system. An administrator is able to give the user permissions for certain role. There are many permissions provided in Drupal.

  • give permission to allow view news feeds.
  • give permission that gives users access to the block configuration page
  • give permission to create blog entries, delete any blog entry, delete own blog entries, edit any blog entry.
  • give permission that allows the user access to the input format configuration pages.
  • give permission to configure settings for forums.
  • give permission to upload files
  • give permission to download files
  • etc

Reference :

2. What is a “theme” in Drupal? How do themes make designing web sites easier?

Themes allow you to change the look and feel of your Drupal site. You can use themes contributed by others or create your own to share with the community. Contributed themes are not part of any official release and may not have optimized code/functionality for your purposes. You can also create a sub-theme of an existing theme. A sub-theme inherits a parent theme’s resources. Read more about Sub-theme structure and inheritance. You can also view a full index of themes listing only their titles.

3. What are “blocks” in Drupal? How do blocks make designing web sites easier?

Blocks are the boxes of content (such as “User Login” or “Who’s online”) that can be displayed in regions (such as footer or sidebar) on your page.

Blocks are made available to your site most commonly by enabling modules. Once created, a Block can be modified to adjust its appearance, shape, size and position – or which Website pages it appears on. For example, enabling the core Poll module makes the “Most Recent Polls” block available for you to place in a region. Also note that some modules provide multiple blocks when enabled, others may not define new blocks.

4. What is a Google Ajax Wizard? How can Google Ajax Wizards make adding content to
a web site easier?

Google Ajax Wizard allows the automated content retrieval from a sever to website, such as a feed or stream. The feed control updated by the third party so much faster and automatically. Also they need no maintenance. They are a good way to provide fresh content for the website.
5. Undertake the following tasks for your Drupal web site assignment:
a. Add a logo;
b. Add a shortcut icon/favicon;
c. Implement a navigation system; and
d. Investigate what Google Aja

Blog 5 – IA

1. What is the goal of a label?

  •  Communicate effectively – Cause the right association for the user
  •  Communicate efficiently – Don’t take up too much physical space, Don’t take up too many cognitive resources

Reference: LectureNotes

2. Why is labelling an important aspect of web site design?

Because web site communications are very different from real-time physical conversations between people and a web site serves as an intermediary between people. There is no immediate feedback. A labelling system is needed to provide visual cues to educate the user about new concepts and help them quickly identify familiar ones.

Reference: LectureNotes

3. What are the aspects of a good labelling system?

  • Consistency, Use user’s perspective language, Use of appropriate one of voice

Reference: LectureNotes

4. List and describe the types/varieties of labels?

  • Nouns (“Flight reservations”)
  • Verb phrases (“Book a flight”) (“Sign up Now”) (“Apply Today”)
  • Gerunds (“Giving to Maryland”)
  • Prepositional phrases (“For applicants”)
  • Questions (“How do I sign up?”)
  • Idiomatic (“What’s new?”, “Guestbook”, “Shopping cart”)
  • Icons

Reference: LectureNotes

5. Why do index terms facilitate faster searching and make browsing easier?

Because index terms often referred to as keywords, descriptive metadata, taxonomies, controlled vocabularies, and thesauri, the records used to represent documents in content management systems and other databases typically include fields for index terms. Using index terms for controlled vocabularies or thesauri is a systematic approach to labelling.

Reference: LectureNotes

6. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using iconic labels.

  • Advantages: add aesthetic quality to a site, repeated exposure : representational, esay to visually recognize
  • Disadvantages: more limited carry of meaning than text, Risky proposition to use in many instances

Reference: LectureNotes

7. What is the purpose of “scope notes”?

Scope notes are way to put a restriction on meaning. Scope notes are what you want to share with the world; editorial notes are what we will share with the team


8. How do homonyms and synonyms affect label design?

  • homonyms: words that sound the same but have different meanings
  • Synonyms: different words that mean the same or a similar thing
  • Different context affects user’s understanding of a particular term

Reference: LectureNotes

9. Why is it important to be consistent when designing a labelling system?

Because if a labelling system is not designed to be consistent, user will get confused and easy to get lost when they are searching and browsing.

10. Why is it better to have a narrower scope when designing labels?

  • Focusing on a more defined audience reduces the number of possible perspectives of what a label means
  • Sticking to few subject domains achieves more obvious and effective representation
  • A narrower business context means clearer goals for the site, its architecture, and therefore its labels

11. List and describe the key issues that affect the consistency of a labelling system.

  • Style: Avoid haphazard use of punctuation and case
  • Presentation: Consistent application of fonts, font sizes, colours, whitespace and grouping
  • Syntax: Choose a single syntactical approach
  • Granularity: Present labels that are roughly similar in their specificity
  • Comprehensiveness: Don’t leave gaps in the labelling system
  • Audience: Consider the language of your sites intended audience

Reference: LectureNotes

12. What are the main sources of labelling systems?

  • Current main web site
  • Competitor’s web site
  • Controlled vocabularies and thesauri

13. Create a labelling table for a web site of your choice. Comment on the quality of the labelling system. Are there any inconsistencies? How would you improve the labelling system?

14. What are the advantages of using controlled vocabularies and thesauri as a source for labelling systems? Provide some examples of controlled vocabulary and thesauri resources.

These vocabularies are often publicly available and have been designed for broad usage. You’ll find these to be most useful for populating labeling systems used for indexing content.

15. Describe the three most important sources for creating a new labelling system.

  • Software tools
  • Content authors
  • Subject matter experts

16. Take a screen capture of the main page of web site of an e-commerce web site of your own choice and post it on your blog. Ensure that you capture the entire page with your screen capture, not just the top portion of it. Note that you can’t choose a search engine or your own blog to critique. The e-commerce site must make use of a search system.

a) Create a table (similar to one below) describing ALL the navigation labels. The table
should present the name of the label, the destination page’s heading label, and the
destination page’s <TITLE> label.

b) Describe what labels you do not like and why, and suggest improvements.

c) Describe whether there are any inconsistencies in the labelling system between the pages on the basis of style, presentation, syntax, granularity, comprehensiveness and audience.

d) Describe what forms of navigation are used?

e) Describe what type of search system is used and the strategies for facilitating search?

f) Examine at least two other similar or competing web sites and undertake the following tasks:

a. Provide screen shots of these competing web sites.

b. Describe how similar the labelling systems are.

c. Describe the similarities in the navigation systems.

d. Describe the similarities in the search systems

e. State whether you think any particular site is clearly the winner (and if so, why)?

17. What is meant by the term “subject matter expert”?

A subject matter expert means that an individual who exhibits the highest level of expertise in performing a specialized job, task, or skill within the organization. A subject matter expert might be a software engineer, a helpdesk support operative, an accounts manager, a scientific researcher.


18. What is card sorting? Describe how card sorting can be useful for creating a labelling system.

Card sorting is a method used to help design or evaluate the information architecture of a site. In a card sorting session, participants organize topics into categories that make sense to them and they may also help you label these groups.


19. What is meant by the term “folksonomic tagging”?

Folksonomic tagging means another useful indirect source of labels for you to learn from. In many of these sites, users’ tags are publicly viewable. When you display them in aggregate, you’ll find a collection of candidate labels that approximates the results of a free-listing exercise.


20. What is search log analysis? Why is it useful/important?

Analysing search queries is a good way to understand the types of labels your site’s visitors typically us

21. What is an embedded navigation system? What are the three types of embedded navigation systems?

An embedded navigation system is a navigation system that is inserted and merged within the content of the site.

-global, local, contextual


22. What is a supplemental navigation system? What are the three types of supplemental navigation systems?

Navigation system that runs outside of the content page.

-sitemap, index, guide


23. Describe the main types of built-in web browser navigation.

-URL box

-Back and forward buttons

-Bookmarks, Favourties

-Browser history

Reference: LectureNotes

24. What are the some of the ways designers override or corrupt browser-based navigation?

Cluelessly modifying the visited/unvisited link colours • Killing the back button • Crippling the Bookmark feature

Reference: LectureNotes

25. Apply the navigation stress test to two different web sites and describe your findings.

26. Describe the purpose and key features of a global navigation system.

helps users navigate the site to find the areas of interest to them. global navigation tends to concern itself with hierarchies of information or broad categories. Global navigation usually appears in the same way and at the same place on every page, listing the same items. Global navigation shows users where they are within the site and how to get somewhere else. It usually remains consistent throughout the site.

27. Describe the pros and cons of hypertextual navigation.

Pros: Lateral and vertical navigation is available

Cons: Not easy to understand for user how the system navigates

28. Go to two large websites that support global and local navigation. Post screen shots of these two websites and highlight the navigation systems.

global nava


29. Describe the purpose of a contextual navigation system. Find two examples of web sites that use contextual navigation. Use these example to explain how contextual navigation supports associate learning.

The purpose of a contextual navigation systems is to allow for associative learning as users learn by exploring the relationship between items.



Reference: Chapter 7 Navigation Systems – Information Architecture for the World Wide Web: Designing Large-Scale Web Sites

30. Find an example of a web site that uses a sitemap as a supplemental navigation system. Critique the sitemap according to the design criteria outlined in the lecture notes.



31. Why is the level of granularity an issue when designing a web site index?

The level of granularity can be an issue as it depends on designing a website index this can be difficult to determine the correct level of granularity you should use when indexing the site.

Reference: Chapter 7 Navigation Systems – Information Architecture for the World Wide Web: Designing Large-Scale Web Sites

32. What is term rotation? Provide some examples of term rotation for a site index.

Term rotation is when the words in a phrase are entered in a different order by the user so they don’t miss out on the correct result because they entered the term differently to others
Example.  Searching for Iphone 6 or 6 Iphone should resolve the same result .

33. Find an example of a web site that uses a guide as a supplemental navigation system. Critique the guide according to the design criteria outlined in the lecture notes.

34. List and describe the advanced navigation approaches.

– Personalisation and customisation: Personalisation is presenting tailored pages to the users according to their previous behavior where customisation allows the users to change element of the page to suit their preference.
– Visualisation: The visualisation approach istrying to present a websites to users as physical places and have them navigate through them as if they were at that physical place.
– Social navigation: Social navigation is whenusing the actions of the group to guess the likely actions of a user. For example, other users that purchased this, also liked this.

Reference: Chapter 7 Navigation Systems – Information Architecture for the World Wide Web: Designing Large-Scale Web Sites

35. Design a site map or index for your proposed Drupal CMS web site for the assignment.

Blog 4 – CMS

1. What is a mark-up language?

Markup languages are designed for the processing, definition and presentation of text. The language specifies code for formatting, both the layout and style, within a text file. The code used to specify the formatting are called tags. HTMLis a an example of a widely known and usedmarkup language.


2. Describe the processes involved for creating a web site using HTML and uploading the site to a web server.

  1. Create web document using HTML
  2. Upload web document to the web server (FTP client needed, essential)
  3. After uploading, website is on.

3. Contrast the differences between creating web site using HTML and using a CMS.

HTML: Customisation but not easy to change contents, design

CMS: No Technical Knowledge Required, east to change contents, design

4. Describe the options and processes involved for installing Drupal.


5. What is Google Adwords used for?

Google AdWords is Google’s online advertising program that lets you reach new customers and grow your business. With AdWords, you choose where your ad appears, set a budget you’re comfortable with, and measure the impact of your ad.


6. Describe some of the major security concerns for a Drupal web site.

  1. SQL Injection
  2. Cross Site Scripting (XSS)
  3. Authentications and sessions
  4. Insecure direct object references
  5. Cross Site Request Forgery (CSRF)
  6. Security misconfiguration (Main source of attacks!)
  7. Insecure cryptographic storage
  8. Failure to restrict URL access
  9. Insufficient transport protection
  10. Unvalidated redirects


7. Look into the options for creating a hosting account for your CMS assignment. Undertake the following tasks:

a. Choose the most suitable/viable hosting option for you (based on your technical ability and budget);

b. Establish a hosting account;

c. Install Drupal;

d. Configure the security settings for your Drupal site; and

e. Place a link to your Drupal site on your blog.

Blog 3 – IA

1. Why is it difficult for people to reward good IA?

  • Because  Information Architecture (IA) is a new field, many people have difficulty understanding what it is about. As IA is abstract, therefore people might conceptually understand it, but don’t “get it” until they see and experience it

Reference : Lecture notes

2. Explain what is meant by “Top-Down IA”.

  • Top-Down IA attempts to anticipate the users’ major information needs. It starts with a broad overview and understanding of the website’s strategy and goals, and creates a basic structure first. From there, content relationships are refined as the site architecture grows deeper, but it’s all viewed from the overall high-level purpose of the site.

Reference : Lecture notes

3. What are some common questions a user has upon landing on a page on a web site?

  • Where am I?
  • I know what I’m looking for, how do I search for it?
  • How do I get around this site?
  • What’s important and unique about this organisation?
  • What’s available on the site?
  • Do they want my opinion about their site?
  • Where else can I navigate to??
  • How can I contact a human?
  • What’s their address?

Reference: Lecture notes

4. Explain what is meant by “Bottom-Up IA”. Why is Bottom-Up IA becoming increasingly important?

  • The bottom-up architecture model looks at the detailed relationships between content first. It supports searching and browsing, the structure inherent in the content enables the answers to user’ questions to “rise” to the surface. Bottom-Up IA is important as users are increasingly likely to bypass your site’s top-down architecture.

Reference : Lecture notes

5. What is an organisation system?

  • The main ways of categorising or grouping a site’s content (e.g., by topic, task, audience, or chronology). Also known as taxonomies and hierarchies.

Reference: Lecture notes

6. What is a site-wide navigation system? Provide a screenshot of an example.

  • Primary navigation systems that help users understand where they are and where they can go within a site

site-wide navigation

Reference: Lecture notes

7. What is a local navigation system? Provide a screenshot of an example.

  • Primary navigation systems that help users understand where they are and where they can go within a portion of a site

local navigation

Reference: Lecture notes

8. What is a sitemap/table of contents? Provide a screenshot of an example.

  • Navigation systems that supplement primary navigation systems; provide a condensed overview of and links to major content areas and subsites


Reference: Lecture notes

9. What are site indices? Provide a screenshot of an example.

  •  Supplementary navigation systems that provide an alphabetised list of links to the contents of the site


Reference: Lecture notes

10. What are site guides? Provide a screenshot of an example.

  • Supplementary navigation systems that provide specialised information on a specific topic, as well as links to a related subset of the site’s content


Reference: Lecture notes

11. What are site wizards? Provide a screenshot of an example.

  • Supplementary navigation systems that lead users through a sequential set of steps; may also link to a related subset of the site’s content

vertical wizard

Reference: Lecture notes

12. What is a contextual navigation system? Provide a screenshot of an example.

  • Consistently presented links to related content. Often embedded in text, and generally used to connect highly specialised content within a site

contextual navi

Reference: Lecture notes

13. What is a search interface? Provide a screenshot of an example.

  • The means of entering and revising a search query, typically with information on how to improve your query, or other ways to configure your search

search interface

Reference: Lecture notes!/advanced

14. What is a query language? List some Boolean operators and provide examples of queries using these operators.

  • The grammar of a search query
  • AND, OR, and NOT.
  • OR: CPA OR “C.P.A” OR “Certified Public Accountant
  • NOT: .Net AND NOT (Java OR JSP OR J2EE) – that search will not return any results with any mention of Java, JSP, and/or J2EE.

Reference: Lecture notes

15. What is a query builder?

  • Ways of enhancing a query’s performance; common examples include spell checkers, stemming, concept search, synonyms from a thesaurus

Reference: Lecture notes

16. What is the purpose of a retrieval algorithm?

  • The part of a search engine that determines which content matches a user’s query. E.g., Google’s PageRank

Reference: Lecture notes

17. What are search zones?

  • Subset of site content that have been separately indexed to support narrower searching

Reference: Lecture notes

18. What are search results?

  • Presentation of content that matches the user’s search query

Reference: Lecture notes

19. In terms of content, why are headings important?

  • Because headings are labels for the content that follows them, in other words, headings suggest types of content.

Reference: Lecture notes

20. What are embedded links?

  • Links within text; these label (represent) the content they link to

Reference: Lecture notes

21. What is embedded metadata?

  • Information that can be used as metadata but must first be extracted

Reference: Lecture notes

22. In terms of content, what are chunks?

  • Logical units of content; these can vary in granularity and can be nested

Reference: Lecture notes

23. What are sequential

  • Clues that suggest where the user is in a process or task, and how far s/he has to go before completing it

Reference: Lecture notes

24. What are identifiers?

  • Clues that suggest where the user is in an information system, or a breadcrumb explaining where in the site s/he is

Reference: Lecture notes

25. What is meant by “invisible components” in IA?

  • Certain key architectural components are manifest completely in the background; users rarely interact with them

Reference: Lecture notes

26. What are controlled vocabularies and thesauri?

  • Predetermined vocabularies of preferred terms that describe a specific domain

Reference: Lecture notes

27. What is best

  • Preferred search results that are manually coupled with a search query. Editors and subject matter experts determine which queries should retrieve best bets and which documents merit best bet status

Reference: Lecture notes

28. List some of the difficulties with organising information.

  • Ambiguity: Classification systems are built upon the foundation of language, and language is ambiguous: words are capable of being understood more than one way.
  • Heterogeneity: Heterogeneity refers to an object or collection of objects composed of unrelated or unlike parts.
  • Difference in Perspectives: labeling and organization systems are intensely affected by their creators’ perspectives.
  • Internal Politics: Politics exist in every organization. Individuals and departments constantly position for influence or respect. Because of the inherent power of information organization in forming understanding and opinion, the process of designing information architectures for web sites and intranets can involve a strong undercurrent of politics.


29. What is meant by the term “taxonomy”?

  • Taxonomy is a hierarchical structure for the classification or organization of data, historically used by biologists to classify plants or animals according to a set of natural relationships.

30. What is hierarchy a natural way for humans to organise information?

  • Every person has a different way they search information. The principle of the five hat racks suggests that there are limited numbers of ways information can be organised, using a hierarchy helps display information in an organised manner, since information is very valuable to us all and also helps display things from start to finish.

31. List some design rules when designing a hierarchical organisation scheme.

  • Keep balance between breadth and depth
  • Obey the 7 +- rule horizontally
  • No more than 5 levels vertically
  • Cross-link ambiguous items if really necessary
  • Keep new sites shallow

Reference: LectureNotes

32. Describe the advantages and disadvantages of a hypertextual organisation structure.

  • A hypertext system involves two primary types of components: the items or chunks of information which are to be linked, and the links between those chunks.
  • Advantages: Hypertext chunks can be connected hierarchically, non-hierarchically, or both, provides great flexibility.
  • Disadvantages: presents substantial potential for complexity and user confusion, easy for users to get lost in highly hypertextual web sites.


33. What is social classification?

  • social classification is a convenient, generic label that may be used to refer to any of a number of broadly related processes by which the resources in a collection are categorized by multiple people over an ongoing period, with the potential result that any given resource will come to be represented by a set of labels or descriptors that have been generated by different people.


34. What is meant by the term “folksonomy”?

  • Folksonomy is a system of classification derived from the practice and method of collaboratively creating and translating tags to annotate and categorise content

Reference: LectureNotes

35. Arrange the following list in alphabetical order then answer the questions below. You should look to the literature and existing theory to justify your answers.

  • a) Did you put ‘The Hague’ under T or H? Why?

Under T, because word starts with “The”

  • b) Did you put ‘El Paso’ under E or P? Why?

Under E, because word starts with “El”

  • c) Which came first in your list, ‘Newark’ or ‘New York’? Why?

New York, because after “New”, Newark has got “a” and New York has got space between two words.

  • d) Does ‘St. Louis’ come before or after ‘Saint Nicholas’? Why?

St.Louis comes after Saint Nicholas because ‘a’ comes after S in Saint Nicholas

  • e) How did you handle numbers, punctuation, and special characters? (Justify your answer.)

Space -> Special Character -> punctuation -> numbers

Reference :

  • f) Assuming the italicised terms are book titles, what might be a more useful way to organise this list? (Justify your answer.)

Alphabetical order

  • g) If the cities represent places you’ve visited and the book titles are ones you’ve read, how could chronology be used to order the list in a more meaningful way? (Justify your answer.)

Name of cities in chronological order and recently visited cities placed firstly.

36. Seek out and provide screen shots of web sites that are examples for each of the following organisation schemes:

a) Topic/Subject

Content is organised by different subject, category


b) Task

Content is organized by different kind of tasks



c) Audience

Content is organized by its users.



d) Metaphor

Metaphor based websites help users understand the content of the site by relating it to something they are familiar with



e) Hybrid Provide a brief explanation for why each example presented belongs to the particular type of organisation scheme.

Note that you cannot use the same examples as in the lecture notes or textbook

Hybrid Web specialises in producing spectacular and visually appealing websites with a focus on creating content and strategies that produce lead generation, inquiries and sales.

Hybrid Website could be combination website of a,b,c, and d above.

Blog 2 – CMS

1. What is a Content Management System (CMS)? Describe the main characteristics of a CMS. Why might you use a CMS?

A content management system (CMS) is a computer application that allows publishing, editing and modifying content, organizing, deleting as well as maintenance from a central interface. Such systems of content management provide procedures to manage workflow in a collaborative environment.

Main characteristics

  • Single-source functionality
  • Content reuse
  • Bi-directional link management
  • Integrations with editing tools
  • Full unicode support
  • Extensibility
  • Digital asset management
  • Remote access
  • Authorized access control
  • Graphical workflow
  • Global change capabilities
  • Structural flexibility
  • Corporate stability
  • On-site training and ongoing customer support

Why CMS?

Content management systems and blogging platforms make publishing your content much easier and cost effective. And a growing part of marketing your business online involves publishing content on a regular basis. If CMS is not used when managing content, user will spend more money on content that user really need to spend and also user will not be able to publish good content as often as he/she should.

2. List five well known CMSs.

  • WordPress
  • Joomla
  • ModX
  • TextPattern
  • Drupal

3. What is an open source CMS? Describe the main characteristics of an open source CMS.

Open source systems let you see what makes the software tick, and you can often change it to suit your needs. Use this to your advantage when it comes to differentiating yourself from the rest of the pack.

However, because of the popularity of open source systems, many people are familiar with open source code, which creates a higher risk for hacking. If you choose to design in an open source system, your development team is going to need to put time and work into preventing third-party tampering. This difficulty will scale based on many factors such as how many people need to have access to sensitive areas of the site (like the admin panel).

4. Describe the pros and cons of the following approaches to web development:

a. Manual creation (in HTML)

Pros: Plain text, easy to edit. easy to pack up/ learn. Supported by most browsers across most if no all platforms.

Cons: need to be manually updated. Does not rendered correctly in all browsers. Is not really as flexible as other standards or technologies

b. Commercial CMS

Pros: Web hosting, site maintenance, support and automatic upgrades come included. Website functionalities come standard. Security, Specially-trained support team.

Cons: user may pay a licensing fee, does not accept third-party plugins.

c. Open source CMS

Pros: available to the public, free of charge. The ability to choose from a huge community of website development companies. Thousands of plugins available to enhance web site’s functionality. Wisdom of the crowd.

Cons: open source cms community may eventually provide a fix but there are no guarantees as to when. Plug-in security issues, updating versions

d. Free CMS

Pros: Free to use, developers may create new modules for free

Cons: not managed, user need to manage by themselves.

5. What are the differences between Drupal and Google Sites?

Google sites are easier to use and free, simple to set up. We need more knowledge to use Drupal. Google does not provide multilingual options. If we want to change the web site’s name, google provides it for free where as Drupal asks for payment.

6. What are the differences between Drupal and Joomla?

Both of them are full featured Web CMS platforms. If a business only needs a simple blog or wiki, both will feel bloated and it would be better served with a simpler platform such as WordPress. If the business requires complex content hierarchy, tagging and authoring, that business is now in the realm of these two platforms.

If the site involves serving of various pages and content based on a hierarchy while keeping to a consistent style and the ability to author pages easily, than Joomla will fit your needs.

Where it falls short and where Drupal excels is in more complex content relationships. If the business or user need an advanced system with specific content appearing in different ways on different pages in different places, then Drupal’s ability to have complex content relationships and access control of content will allow the flexibility to fit any project.

Drupal’s highly modular architecture in all areas of functionality are what allows for this flexibility and also provides a good platform for extending it to fit the exact needs of many projects. While this sounds great, the flip side can also be considered a boon for Joomla. Its architecture, while less flexible, is very structured and many features are built into Joomla out of the box and are very stable and very easy to work with.

7. What are the differences between Drupal and Plone?

Both Drupal and Plone can be used for both enterprise and web content management systems (ECMS, WCMS), Plone seems more ECMS oriented and Drupal more WCMS oriented. Indeed, Drupal will let you publish your web CMS in no time and get started with adding pages, blogging, and styling. Plone is a heavier system to get configured and moving but provides several enterprise level features that Drupal doesn’t have out of the box (advanced workflows and specific content types for instance).


8. Find examples of five sites made using Drupal. Place links to these sites on your blog.

9. Design a web site about something that you like (preferably business or educational in nature). The web site must be of a small to medium size (no less than ten pages). Keep your web site design within scope as you will be required to implement it using Drupal.

Describe exactly who the anticipated audience is, and how the particular characteristics of this audience will affect the design and implementation of your web site. You must be very specific. Outline the target audience’s characteristics such as:

i. Gender;

ii. Age;

iii. Demographics; and

iv. Socio-economic background.

10. Create a Google Site. Place a link to your Google Site on your blog. Use the Google Site as a prototyping test bed for your web site design from Question 9. Be sure to set the permissions correctly so anyone can view your site. When the time is right, you can transition the content to your Drupal site for your CMS implementation assignment.

11. Try out the Drupal demo at:

Blog 1 – IA

1. What is information? Describe the qualities of information.

Information is data or knowledge that is gained or passed through communication, study, examination and analysis etc. The qualities of information can be defined by questions below

  • How accurate and how relevant to the topic?
  • How reliable the information is?
  • Where is the information from?

2. What is the Dewey Decimal System? Describe how it operates.

The Dewey Decimal System was published in 1876. This system is a library categorization system, created by Melvil Dewey. It uses groupings of ten to organize and provide access to the growing number of books library by subject matter, each of which contains ten divisions and then are divided into to ten sub-categories, then each sub-category is divided into topics. Each of these topics may be further divided, this can continue as far as needed. The way the Dewey decimal system operates is by assigning a decimal number to a book, from this decimal number it is just a matter of correlating the correlating back to the book itself.

3. Explain what Library Science is.

Library Science is a generic term of both theoretical and technical research, study about phenomenon that happens in library.

4. What is information architecture?

  • Philosophical meaning and expression of architecture about given information
  • Visual plan and expression on web contents such as block settlement which is suitable for World Wide Web

5. List and describe at least three reasons for why information architecture is important (i.e., the return on investment for hiring an information architect).

  • Construction (time, technology, plan, staff)
  • Education (user, projects, products)
  • Maintenance (repair, fix, maintain)

6. List and describe the four key information architecture concepts that help information architects articulate user needs and behaviours.

  • Complex Systems: Studies how parts of a system give rise to the collective behaviors of the system, and how the system interact with its environment.
  • Knowledge Systems:a computer program that reasons and uses a knowledgebase to solve complex problems.
  • Information Seeking Behavior: micro-level of behavior employed by the searcher in interacting with information systems of all kinds, be it between the seeker and the system, or the pure method of creating and following up on a search.
  • Invisible Work: The work performed by information architect, a user enters a search and is magically presented with results and information.

7. List and describe the three main information architecture systems that support a web site.

  • Navigation Systems: Refers to the process of navigating a network of information resources in the World Wide Web, which is organized as hypertext or hypermedia.
  • Frame network(semantic network): A network which represents semantic relations between concepts. Often used as a form of knowledge representation.
  • Searching Systems: Designed to search for information on the World Wide Web.

8. List and describe the four main information architecture deliverables.

  • Content Audit or Content Inventory: Looks at the content on a website, intranet, extranet or software program to see what is redundant, out of date or trivial and also to see what information ca be kept.
  • Metadata: Helps identify each topic or content part. Can include fields for the file type, author/creator, editor, date created.
  • Site Maps: Spells out the structure of the site.
  • Wireframe: shows the design of the site without any visual design. It shows how information should be laid out.

9. The following is a list of career titles related to this course. Research five titles from the list. Write a brief description for the title, what the key duties are, which potential companies will hire people with those skillsets, and what sort of remuneration is provided.

1. Information Architect

Job description: The primary responsibility of the Information Architect is data standards and procedures, warehousing, design and development of logical and physical data models and databases, distributed data management, information management functions.

Key duties: The Information Architect typically serves as member of first line management and is considered a senior professional within the organization. As such, the Information Architect provides team or technical supervision. The organization will depend on this person’s expertise and experience with complex technical activities.

Companies: Microsoft, amazon, cisco, google

Skill set:

  • Identifies data sources, constructs data decomposition diagrams, provides data flow diagrams and documents the entire process.
  • Designs, develops and manipulates databases, data warehouses and multidimensional databases.
  • Aligns information architecture with enterprise architecture by selecting appropriate tools and techniques to capture this information.
  • Determines transition strategy from current to new architecture, including integration from current data and information system

Remuneration (average): AU$171,628 / year

2.Quality Assurance Project Manager

Job description: Quality assurance project managers work with other staff within organisations to determine and establish procedures and quality standards and to monitor these against agreed targets.

Key duties:

  • determining, negotiating and agreeing in-house quality procedures, standards and/or specifications
  • assessing customer requirements and ensuring that these are met
  • setting customer service standards
  • specifying quality requirements of raw materials with suppliers
  • investigating and setting standards for quality/health and safety
  • ensuring that manufacturing processes comply with standards at both national and international level
  • working with operating staff to establish procedures, standards, systems and procedures
  • writing management/technical reports and customers’ charters
  • determining training needs
  • acting as a catalyst for change and improvement in performance/quality
  • directing objectives to maximise profitability
  • recording, analysing and distributing statistical information
  • monitoring performance
  • supervising technical or laboratory staff.

Companies: Philips, Amazon, Toshiba, Verizon

Skill set:

  • Excellent technical skills
  • Organisational skills
  • Planning skills
  • Interpersonal skills
  • Communication skills
  • Problem solving skills
  • Teamworking skills
  • IT skills
  • Communication skills.

Remuneration (average): AU$90,893 / year

3.Search Engine Optimiser

Job description: An SEO Specialist will develop original content to include keyword or phrases that will increase traffic to a site

Key duties: A Search Engine Optimization (SEO) Specialist’s main role is to analyze, review and implement changes to websites so they are optimized for search engines. This means maximizing the traffic to a site by improving page rank within search engines. An SEO Specialist will develop original content to include keyword or phrases that will increase traffic to a site. They may also test and implement testing various search engine marketing techniques, web site layouts and advertising for search engine optimization.

Companies: AirWatch, Johnson & Johnson

Skill set: A degree and a minimum of one to three years of web experience is required for the SEO Specialist position, including knowledge of HTML, CSS, programming language and blogging.

Remuneration: AU$77,419 / year

4.UX Designer

Job description: The broad responsibility of a UX designer is to ensure that the product logically flows from one step to the next. One way that a UX designer might do this is by conducting in-person user tests to observe one’s behavior. By identifying verbal and non-verbal stumbling blocks, they refine and iterate to create the “best” user experience. An example project is creating a delightful onboarding flow for a new user.

Key duties:

understand the rendering capabilities of the platform for which they’re designing know how to design for accessibility, accommodating the needs of people with color-deficient vision and low vision provide iconic representations of objects and actions, as well as other graphic elements be able to visually express hierarchy, grouping, and workflows for applications have a mastery of information design and be able to clearly express complex information design for consistency with standards rather than creative expression and I know Whitney would agree with this… They must take a user-centered approach to visual design, knowing who a product’s users are and understanding their wants and needs, so they can create an optimal design for them.

Companies: ebay, national geographic, indigo beam consulting, ibm, amazon

Skill set: Amazon, Facebook, Verizon, Motorola Solutions

  • research techniques
  • ethnography and discovery—user goals, motivations, and work patterns
  • user modeling—persona and scenario creation; role-playing
  • product design—product-level interaction principles and concepts
  • interaction design—function-level interaction principles and concepts
  • interface design—component-level interaction principles and concepts
  • information architecture and information design—content structure and presentation principles

Remuneration (average): AU$75,000 / year

5. Web Developer

Job description:

Web designers/developers design, create, produce and maintain websites using relevant software packages.

Web designers are often required to travel locally, nationally and internationally to meet clients and other people working on particular projects, such as designers and systems specialists.
Working conditions can be stressful at times, especially when deadlines need to be met.

Key duties:

  • talk with clients and discuss ideas to get a clear understanding of their requirements
  • develop website content
  • manage the image and copyrights of the company on the internet
  • decide on the design aspects of the website, including the use of graphics, links and forms
  • ensure text and graphic elements mesh together as a cohesive, eye-catching work
  • develop custom programmes to extend the functionality of websites
  • talk with writers, designers, system administrators and other IT staff to ensure the website will fulfil its purpose
  • maintain or update the website once it is completed by adding new content, illustrations or features
  • coordinate other people, such as designers and writers, to help maintain the website.

Companies: Gumtree, careerone

Skill set:

  • HTML/XHTML, CSS, JavaScript
  • Server/Client side architecture
  • Programming/Coding/Scripting in one of the many server-side frameworks (at least one of: Perl, Python, Ruby,PHP, Go, CFML – ColdFusion, Java, ASP, .NET, .NET MVC)
  • Ability to utilize a database

Remuneration (average): AU$55,039 / year

10. Check out the Information Architecture Institute. Comment on what sort of value you see such an institute being to the community. Place a link on your blog to the institute.

The Information Architecture Institute supports the community in the design and construction of shared information environments. They are valuable part of the social community to educate more and more people.

11. Describe what is meant by the term “information ecology”.

Scientific study of the relationships between users, context and content.

12. What is content management and how does it relate to information architecture?

Content management is the administration of digital content throughout its lifecycle, from creation to permanent storage or deletion whereas information architecture refers to the overall structure of the information.

13. What is metadata and how is it used in information architecture?

Metadata helps identify each topic or content part. It can include fields for the file type, author/creator, editor, date created. Metadata is in the practical area of information architecture. Metadata tags are words, images, terms and other identification markers that transform a simple image into a dynamic document and used to describe overall web contents for the purpose of improvement and retrieval.

14. Explain why the “Too-Simple” information model is unrealistic for modelling users’ information seeking behaviours.

The Too-Simple information model is unrealistic for modelling users’ information seeking behaviors as is only useful in simple scenarios and can lead to frustrated users if implemented in inappropriate cases.

15. Describe how a web site user typically finds information.

  • Known-Item seeking
  • Exploratory seeking
  • Exhaustive research
  • Re-finding

16. What is known-item seeking? Give two examples.

Known-item seeking is when the user knows what they are looking for.

  • Orders pizza
  • Internal storage usage on laptop

17. What is exploratory seeking? Give two examples.

Exploratory seeking is when the user searches new sites to find what they want.

  • Looking for new shoes
  • Looking for new generation laptops

18. What is exhaustive research? Give two examples.

Exhaustive research is when the user wants as much information on one subject that they can find.

  • Looking for the cheapest deal on accommodation.
  • Looking for the best race day experience.

19. What is re-finding? Give two examples.

Re-finding is when the user re-visits website they have been to previously.

  • Revisiting online social community web site
  • Watching favorite marked video on YouTube

20. What is the Berry Picking Model? Give an example of how you might search for a topic using the Berry Picking Model.

The Berry picking Model is when you don’t know the right question to ask to a problem however over time the user search parameters evolves through personal experience. An example of this is when the user does not know specifically what they want. So the user uses a broad search term which is then refined until satisfied with the results.

21. What is the Pearl Growing Model? Give an example of how you might search for a topic using the Pearl Growing Model.

The Pearl Growing Model is when users start with a few quality documents the fit exactly what they are searching for. Examples of this occurring can be seen when a user uses Flickr to view photos by ordering by specific parameters.

22. Explain what search analytics is and how it helps your learn more about information needs and information seeking behaviours.

Search analytics is the analysis and collection of search engine statistics for each website and is able to inform about information needs and website behaviours. This is done by recording details of user demographics and browsing history.

23. Explain what contextual enquiry is and how it helps your learn more about information needs and information seeking behaviours.

Contextual Inquiry observes how users of a system interact with information which helps to understand why they are doing something a particular way.

24. Use the pearl growing method for information seeking to search for information about “Electronic Record and Documents Management” and “Digital Asset Management”. Using a minimum of 500 words:

a) Describe what you found/learnt about “Electronic Record and Documents Management” and “Digital Asset Management”. (Remember to provide references to authoritative sources.)

b) Describe your experience with using the pearl growing method and the processes you undertook.