1. What is information? Describe the qualities of information.
Information is data or knowledge that is gained or passed through communication, study, examination and analysis etc. The qualities of information can be defined by questions below
- How accurate and how relevant to the topic?
- How reliable the information is?
- Where is the information from?
2. What is the Dewey Decimal System? Describe how it operates.
The Dewey Decimal System was published in 1876. This system is a library categorization system, created by Melvil Dewey. It uses groupings of ten to organize and provide access to the growing number of books library by subject matter, each of which contains ten divisions and then are divided into to ten sub-categories, then each sub-category is divided into topics. Each of these topics may be further divided, this can continue as far as needed. The way the Dewey decimal system operates is by assigning a decimal number to a book, from this decimal number it is just a matter of correlating the correlating back to the book itself.
3. Explain what Library Science is.
Library Science is a generic term of both theoretical and technical research, study about phenomenon that happens in library.
4. What is information architecture?
- Philosophical meaning and expression of architecture about given information
- Visual plan and expression on web contents such as block settlement which is suitable for World Wide Web
5. List and describe at least three reasons for why information architecture is important (i.e., the return on investment for hiring an information architect).
- Construction (time, technology, plan, staff)
- Education (user, projects, products)
- Maintenance (repair, fix, maintain)
6. List and describe the four key information architecture concepts that help information architects articulate user needs and behaviours.
- Complex Systems: Studies how parts of a system give rise to the collective behaviors of the system, and how the system interact with its environment.
- Knowledge Systems:a computer program that reasons and uses a knowledgebase to solve complex problems.
- Information Seeking Behavior: micro-level of behavior employed by the searcher in interacting with information systems of all kinds, be it between the seeker and the system, or the pure method of creating and following up on a search.
- Invisible Work: The work performed by information architect, a user enters a search and is magically presented with results and information.
7. List and describe the three main information architecture systems that support a web site.
- Navigation Systems: Refers to the process of navigating a network of information resources in the World Wide Web, which is organized as hypertext or hypermedia.
- Frame network(semantic network): A network which represents semantic relations between concepts. Often used as a form of knowledge representation.
- Searching Systems: Designed to search for information on the World Wide Web.
8. List and describe the four main information architecture deliverables.
- Content Audit or Content Inventory: Looks at the content on a website, intranet, extranet or software program to see what is redundant, out of date or trivial and also to see what information ca be kept.
- Metadata: Helps identify each topic or content part. Can include fields for the file type, author/creator, editor, date created.
- Site Maps: Spells out the structure of the site.
- Wireframe: shows the design of the site without any visual design. It shows how information should be laid out.
9. The following is a list of career titles related to this course. Research five titles from the list. Write a brief description for the title, what the key duties are, which potential companies will hire people with those skillsets, and what sort of remuneration is provided.
1. Information Architect
Job description: The primary responsibility of the Information Architect is data standards and procedures, warehousing, design and development of logical and physical data models and databases, distributed data management, information management functions.
Key duties: The Information Architect typically serves as member of first line management and is considered a senior professional within the organization. As such, the Information Architect provides team or technical supervision. The organization will depend on this person’s expertise and experience with complex technical activities.
Companies: Microsoft, amazon, cisco, google
- Identifies data sources, constructs data decomposition diagrams, provides data flow diagrams and documents the entire process.
- Designs, develops and manipulates databases, data warehouses and multidimensional databases.
- Aligns information architecture with enterprise architecture by selecting appropriate tools and techniques to capture this information.
- Determines transition strategy from current to new architecture, including integration from current data and information system
Remuneration (average): AU$171,628 / year
2.Quality Assurance Project Manager
Job description: Quality assurance project managers work with other staff within organisations to determine and establish procedures and quality standards and to monitor these against agreed targets.
- determining, negotiating and agreeing in-house quality procedures, standards and/or specifications
- assessing customer requirements and ensuring that these are met
- setting customer service standards
- specifying quality requirements of raw materials with suppliers
- investigating and setting standards for quality/health and safety
- ensuring that manufacturing processes comply with standards at both national and international level
- working with operating staff to establish procedures, standards, systems and procedures
- writing management/technical reports and customers’ charters
- determining training needs
- acting as a catalyst for change and improvement in performance/quality
- directing objectives to maximise profitability
- recording, analysing and distributing statistical information
- monitoring performance
- supervising technical or laboratory staff.
Companies: Philips, Amazon, Toshiba, Verizon
- Excellent technical skills
- Organisational skills
- Planning skills
- Interpersonal skills
- Communication skills
- Problem solving skills
- Teamworking skills
- IT skills
- Communication skills.
Remuneration (average): AU$90,893 / year
3.Search Engine Optimiser
Job description: An SEO Specialist will develop original content to include keyword or phrases that will increase traffic to a site
Key duties: A Search Engine Optimization (SEO) Specialist’s main role is to analyze, review and implement changes to websites so they are optimized for search engines. This means maximizing the traffic to a site by improving page rank within search engines. An SEO Specialist will develop original content to include keyword or phrases that will increase traffic to a site. They may also test and implement testing various search engine marketing techniques, web site layouts and advertising for search engine optimization.
Companies: AirWatch, Johnson & Johnson
Skill set: A degree and a minimum of one to three years of web experience is required for the SEO Specialist position, including knowledge of HTML, CSS, programming language and blogging.
Remuneration: AU$77,419 / year
Job description: The broad responsibility of a UX designer is to ensure that the product logically flows from one step to the next. One way that a UX designer might do this is by conducting in-person user tests to observe one’s behavior. By identifying verbal and non-verbal stumbling blocks, they refine and iterate to create the “best” user experience. An example project is creating a delightful onboarding flow for a new user.
understand the rendering capabilities of the platform for which they’re designing know how to design for accessibility, accommodating the needs of people with color-deficient vision and low vision provide iconic representations of objects and actions, as well as other graphic elements be able to visually express hierarchy, grouping, and workflows for applications have a mastery of information design and be able to clearly express complex information design for consistency with standards rather than creative expression and I know Whitney would agree with this… They must take a user-centered approach to visual design, knowing who a product’s users are and understanding their wants and needs, so they can create an optimal design for them.
Companies: ebay, national geographic, indigo beam consulting, ibm, amazon
Skill set: Amazon, Facebook, Verizon, Motorola Solutions
- research techniques
- ethnography and discovery—user goals, motivations, and work patterns
- user modeling—persona and scenario creation; role-playing
- product design—product-level interaction principles and concepts
- interaction design—function-level interaction principles and concepts
- interface design—component-level interaction principles and concepts
- information architecture and information design—content structure and presentation principles
Remuneration (average): AU$75,000 / year
5. Web Developer
Web designers/developers design, create, produce and maintain websites using relevant software packages.
Web designers are often required to travel locally, nationally and internationally to meet clients and other people working on particular projects, such as designers and systems specialists.
Working conditions can be stressful at times, especially when deadlines need to be met.
- talk with clients and discuss ideas to get a clear understanding of their requirements
- develop website content
- manage the image and copyrights of the company on the internet
- decide on the design aspects of the website, including the use of graphics, links and forms
- ensure text and graphic elements mesh together as a cohesive, eye-catching work
- develop custom programmes to extend the functionality of websites
- talk with writers, designers, system administrators and other IT staff to ensure the website will fulfil its purpose
- maintain or update the website once it is completed by adding new content, illustrations or features
- coordinate other people, such as designers and writers, to help maintain the website.
Companies: Gumtree, careerone
- Server/Client side architecture
- Programming/Coding/Scripting in one of the many server-side frameworks (at least one of: Perl, Python, Ruby,PHP, Go, CFML – ColdFusion, Java, ASP, .NET, .NET MVC)
- Ability to utilize a database
Remuneration (average): AU$55,039 / year
10. Check out the Information Architecture Institute. Comment on what sort of value you see such an institute being to the community. Place a link on your blog to the institute.
The Information Architecture Institute supports the community in the design and construction of shared information environments. They are valuable part of the social community to educate more and more people.
11. Describe what is meant by the term “information ecology”.
Scientific study of the relationships between users, context and content.
12. What is content management and how does it relate to information architecture?
Content management is the administration of digital content throughout its lifecycle, from creation to permanent storage or deletion whereas information architecture refers to the overall structure of the information.
13. What is metadata and how is it used in information architecture?
Metadata helps identify each topic or content part. It can include fields for the file type, author/creator, editor, date created. Metadata is in the practical area of information architecture. Metadata tags are words, images, terms and other identification markers that transform a simple image into a dynamic document and used to describe overall web contents for the purpose of improvement and retrieval.
14. Explain why the “Too-Simple” information model is unrealistic for modelling users’ information seeking behaviours.
The Too-Simple information model is unrealistic for modelling users’ information seeking behaviors as is only useful in simple scenarios and can lead to frustrated users if implemented in inappropriate cases.
15. Describe how a web site user typically finds information.
- Known-Item seeking
- Exploratory seeking
- Exhaustive research
16. What is known-item seeking? Give two examples.
Known-item seeking is when the user knows what they are looking for.
- Orders pizza
- Internal storage usage on laptop
17. What is exploratory seeking? Give two examples.
Exploratory seeking is when the user searches new sites to find what they want.
- Looking for new shoes
- Looking for new generation laptops
18. What is exhaustive research? Give two examples.
Exhaustive research is when the user wants as much information on one subject that they can find.
- Looking for the cheapest deal on accommodation.
- Looking for the best race day experience.
19. What is re-finding? Give two examples.
Re-finding is when the user re-visits website they have been to previously.
- Revisiting online social community web site
- Watching favorite marked video on YouTube
20. What is the Berry Picking Model? Give an example of how you might search for a topic using the Berry Picking Model.
The Berry picking Model is when you don’t know the right question to ask to a problem however over time the user search parameters evolves through personal experience. An example of this is when the user does not know specifically what they want. So the user uses a broad search term which is then refined until satisfied with the results.
21. What is the Pearl Growing Model? Give an example of how you might search for a topic using the Pearl Growing Model.
The Pearl Growing Model is when users start with a few quality documents the fit exactly what they are searching for. Examples of this occurring can be seen when a user uses Flickr to view photos by ordering by specific parameters.
22. Explain what search analytics is and how it helps your learn more about information needs and information seeking behaviours.
Search analytics is the analysis and collection of search engine statistics for each website and is able to inform about information needs and website behaviours. This is done by recording details of user demographics and browsing history.
23. Explain what contextual enquiry is and how it helps your learn more about information needs and information seeking behaviours.
Contextual Inquiry observes how users of a system interact with information which helps to understand why they are doing something a particular way.
24. Use the pearl growing method for information seeking to search for information about “Electronic Record and Documents Management” and “Digital Asset Management”. Using a minimum of 500 words:
a) Describe what you found/learnt about “Electronic Record and Documents Management” and “Digital Asset Management”. (Remember to provide references to authoritative sources.)
b) Describe your experience with using the pearl growing method and the processes you undertook.